The OpenNET Project / Index page

[ новости /+++ | форум | wiki | теги | ]

Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)

 [Cписок руководств | Печать]

elmalias ()
  • >> elmalias (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • elmalias (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )


         elmalias - expand and display Elm address aliases


         elmalias [ -adenrsuvV ] [ -f format ] [ name  ... ]
         $lib/prlong [ options ... ] < file


         Elmalias allows you to examine  information  about  aliases.
         The  alias databases are consulted for each name on the com-
         mand line, and the alias value is displayed, one  value  per
         line  of  output.   If name is not a known alias, then it is
         displayed unchanged.  If no name is  given  on  the  command
         line  then  all alias values in the databases are displayed.
         All of these actions are default behaviors that may be modi-
         fied by command line options.
         There are two  possible  alias  databases,  a  user-specific
         alias file (usually in $HOME/.elm/aliases) and a system-wide
         alias file (usually in $lib/aliases).  By default both files
         are  searched,  first  the  user-specific  file and then the
         system-wide file.  If an alias  file  does  not  exist  then
         elmalias  silently  ignores it and continues on.  The -s and
         -u command line options  (discussed  shortly)  can  restrict
         what files are files searched.
         There are two types of aliases,  Person  aliases  and  Group
         aliases.   A  Person  alias expands to an individual address
         and a Group alias contains a  list  of  addresses,  some  of
         which  may  be  aliases.   By default, elmalias displays the
         defined value of an alias, regardless of type.  The -e  com-
         mand line option (discussed shortly) fully expands out Group
         The default output produced is just the ``Address'' informa-
         tion for each name on the command line.  A number of command
         line options (discussed shortly) may be used to select  dif-
         ferent output information or specify a format of your choos-
         ing.  The following information is maintained in  the  alias
         databases, and may be accessed by the elmalias utility:
              o Alias (the alias name)
              o Last Name
              o Name (the user's full name)
              o Comment (not displayed in mail headers)
              o Address (the alias value)
              o Type (Person, Group, or Unknown)
         When the name specified on the command line is not  a  known
         alias,  both  the ``Alias'' and ``Address'' information will
         display as the name, the ``Type'' information  will  display
         as ``Unknown'', and all other items will be blank.
         The available command line options are:
         -a   Selects an alternative output  format.   The  ``Alias''
              information  is  displayed in addition to and preceding
              the usual ``Address'' information.
         -d   Turns debugging on. Has no effect unless  elmalias  was
              compiled with debugging enabled.
         -e   Tells elmalias to fully  expand  group  aliases.   This
              option  can  be  used  only when names are given on the
              command line.
         -f   The output produced will be in  the  specified  format.
              Format specifications will be discussed shortly.
         -n   Selects an alternative  output  format.   The  ``Name''
              information,  if it exists, is displayed in addition to
              and following the usual ``Address''  information.   The
              ``Name'' will be enclosed in parenthesis.
         -r   If a specified name does  not  correspond  to  a  known
              alias  then  elmalias  will  display a message and exit
              with a nonzero status.
         -s   Normally elmalias examines both the  user-specific  and
              system-wide  alias  files.   This  option requests that
              elmalias use the system-wide alias file, and unless the
              -u  option  is  also  specified the user-specific alias
              file will be ignored.
         -u   Normally elmalias examines both the  user-specific  and
              system-wide  alias  files.   This  option requests that
              elmalias use the user-specific alias file,  and  unless
              the  -s  option is also specified the system-wide alias
              file will be ignored.
         -v   Selects a verbose output format.   Both  the  ``Alias''
              and the ``Name'' information will be displayed in addi-
              tion to the  ``Address''  information.   The  ``Alias''
              information  will  precede the ``Address'' information,
              and  the  ``Name''  information  will  be  enclosed  in
              parenthesis  and  follow  it.   If there is no ``Name''
              information for this alias then  that  portion  of  the
              output will be ignored.
         -V   Selects  a  very  verbose,  multi-line  output  format.
              Displays all available information on aliases.
         The output produced by elmalias is fully  customizable  with
         the  -f  option.  The format string uses a syntax similar to
         date(1) (System V version)  and  printf(3).   The  following
         field descriptors may be used in format specifications:
              %a   Alias (the alias name)
              %l   Last Name
              %n   Name (the user's full name)
              %c   Comment (not displayed in mail headers)
              %v   Address (the alias value)
              %t   Type (Person, Group, or Unknown)
         Field widths in  a  [-][m][.n]  format  (again,  similar  to
         printf(3))  may also be used.  For example, "%-20.20a" means
         print the ``Alias'' information left justified  in  a  field
         twenty  characters  long, with the value truncated to twenty
         The following special character sequences  are  also  recog-
         nized in format specifications:
              \b   A backspace.
              \f   A formfeed.
              \n   A newline.
              \r   A return.
              \t   A tab.
              \c   Literal character ``c''.
         There is a very simplistic conditional evaluation  mechanism
         that  may be used in format specifications.  The conditional
         text should be surrounded by question marks,  and  a  single
         character  that  specifies the condition immediately follows
         the  first  question   mark.    The   condition   characters
         correspond  to the ``%'' field specifier characters, and the
         condition is true if the corresponding alias information  is
         defined  and  nonempty.  For example, if you want to display
         the ``Name'' information surrounded by parenthesis, but omit
         it  if  the  information  is  not  available,  you  may  use
         ``?n(%n)?'' in the format specification.
         The command line switches that select an alternative  format
         correspond to the following format specifiers.
              default   "%v"
              -a   "%-20.20a %v"
              -n   "%v?n (%n)?"
              -v   "%-20.20a %v?n (%n)?"
              -V   "Alias:\t\t%a\n\
                   ?n  Name:\t\t%n\n?\
                   ?l  Last Name:\t%l\n?\
                   ?c  Comment:\t%c\n?"
         The prlong utility formats long  amounts  of  data,  folding
         across  multiple  lines.  It is useful to reformat output of
         elmalias.  Prlong reads data from its  standard  input,  one
         line  at  a  time, and tries to place as much information as
         possible on each output line.  A field seperator, by default
         a  single  space,  seperates each input record in the output
         lines.  Every output line is preceded by a leader field.  By
         default  the  leader  of  the  first output line is an empty
         string, and the leader for all subsequent output lines is  a
         single tab.  prlong will never split an input record.  If an
         input record exceeds the maximum output line length, it will
         appear unmodified on an output line all by itself.
         The following options may  be  used  to  modify  the  prlong
         -w width    Constrains output  lines  to  width  columns  in
                     length (not counting an appended newline charac-
                     ter).  The default is  78  columns.   The  width
                     calculation  assumes  that  tabstops occur every
                     eight spaces.
         -f string   Seperates each input record with  the  indicated
                     string   when  displayed  to  the  output.   The
                     default is a single space.
         -1 string   Specifies the leader string used for  the  first
                     line  of  output.   (This  option  is  the digit
                     ``one''.)  The default is an empty string.
         -l string   Specifies the leader string for  all  subsequent
                     lines  of  output.  (This option is a lower-case
                     ``ell''.) The default is a single tab.


         Consider an aliases.text file that contains:
              friends = List of Friends = tom, dick, harry
              tom = Tom Smith = sleepy!tom
              dick = Dick Jones = dopey!dick
              harry = = grumpy!harry
         Below are shown some example commands and  the  output  pro-
              $ elmalias friends
              $ elmalias mike
              $ elmalias -r mike
              elmalias: "mike" is not a known alias
              $ elmalias -n friends
              tom,dick,harry (List of Friends)
              $ elmalias -a friends
              friends              tom,dick,harry
              $ elmalias -V friends
              Alias:          friends
                Address:      tom,dick,harry
                Type:         Group
                Name:         List of Friends
                Last Name:    List of Friends
              $ elmalias -e friends
              $ elmalias -ve friends
              tom         (Tom Smith)
              dick        (Dick Jones)
              $ elmalias -f "alias %a is \"%v\" ?n(%n)?" -e friends
              alias tom is "" (Tom Smith)
              alias dick is "" (Dick Jones)
              alias harry is ""
              $ elmalias -en friends | /usr/lib/elm/prlong -w40
     (Tom Smith)
             (Dick Jones)
              $ elmalias -en friends | /usr/lib/elm/prlong -1 "To: " -f ", " -w40
              To: (Tom Smith),
             (Dick Jones),
         The checkalias(1L)  and  listalias(1L)  scripts  distributed
         with  the  Elm  package  provide  further  examples  of  the
         elmalias and prlong utilities.


         Elm Development Group


         checkalias(1L), elm(1L), listalias(1L), newalias(1L)


         There is no centralized, comprehensive interface to the  Elm
         2.4  alias  system,  so  every program in the Elm suite that
         uses aliases implements its own interfaces.   It's  possible
         for  inconsistencies  to creep in between what elmalias says
         and what some Elm utility  does.   If  you  find  an  incon-
         sistency please report it to us!
         Boy, there sure are a lot of command line switches  in  this
         Note that the precedence of aliases is user file then system
         file.   This  means  that  a user can 'overload' an alias by
         having one defined  in  the  system  file  also  defined  in
         theirs.   This  shouldn't  turn  out to be a problem, but is
         something for the system administrator to keep in mind  when
         creating the system alias file.


         Bill Pemberton


         Copyright 1993-1995 by The USENET Community Trust

    Поиск по тексту MAN-ов: 

    Inferno Solutions
    Hosting by

    Закладки на сайте
    Проследить за страницей
    Created 1996-2022 by Maxim Chirkov
    Добавить, Поддержать, Вебмастеру