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Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)

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pod2man ()
  • >> pod2man (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • pod2man (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )


         pod2man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input


         pod2man [--section=manext] [--release=version] [--
         center=string] [--date=string] [--fixed=font] [--
         fixedbold=font] [--fixeditalic=font] [--
         fixedbolditalic=font] [--official] [--lax] [input [output]]
         pod2man --help


         pod2man is a front-end for Pod::Man, using it to generate
         *roff input from POD source.  The resulting *roff code is
         suitable for display on a terminal using nroff(1), normally
         via man(1), or printing using troff(1).
         input is the file to read for POD source (the POD can be
         embedded in code).  If input isn't given, it defaults to
         STDIN.  output, if given, is the file to which to write the
         formatted output.  If output isn't given, the formatted
         output is written to STDOUT.
         --section, --release, --center, --date, and --official can
         be used to set the headers and footers to use; if not given,
         Pod::Man will assume various defaults.  See below or the
         Pod::Man manpage for details.
         pod2man assumes that your *roff formatters have a fixed-
         width font named CW.  If yours is called something else
         (like CR), use --fixed to specify it.  This generally only
         matters for troff output for printing.  Similarly, you can
         set the fonts used for bold, italic, and bold italic fixed-
         width output.
         Besides the obvious pod conversions, Pod::Man, and therefore
         pod2man also takes care of formatting func(), func(n), and
         simple variable references like $foo or @bar so you don't
         have to use code escapes for them; complex expressions like
         `$fred{'stuff'}' will still need to be escaped, though.  It
         also translates dashes that aren't used as hyphens into en
         dashes, makes long dashes--like this--into proper em dashes,
         fixes "paired quotes," and takes care of several other
         troff-specific tweaks.  See the Pod::Man manpage for
         complete information.


         -c string, --center=string
             Sets the centered page header to string.  The default is
             "User Contributed Perl Documentation", but also see --
             official below.
         -d string, --date=string
             Set the left-hand footer string to this value.  By
             default, the modification date of the input file will be
             used, or the current date if input comes from STDIN.
             The fixed-width font to use for vertabim text and code.
             Defaults to CW.  Some systems may want CR instead.  Only
             matters for troff(1) output.
             Bold version of the fixed-width font.  Defaults to CB.
             Only matters for troff(1) output.
             Italic version of the fixed-width font (actually,
             something of a misnomer, since most fixed-width fonts
             only have an oblique version, not an italic version).
             Defaults to CI.  Only matters for troff(1) output.
             Bold italic (probably actually oblique) version of the
             fixed-width font.  Pod::Man doesn't assume you have
             this, and defaults to CB.  Some systems (such as
             Solaris) have this font available as CX.  Only matters
             for troff(1) output.
         -h, --help
             Print out usage information.
         -l, --lax
             Don't complain when required sections are missing.  Not
             currently used, as POD checking functionality is not yet
             implemented in Pod::Man.
         -o, --official
             Set the default header to indicate that this page is
             part of the standard Perl release, if --center is not
             also given.
         -r, --release
             Set the centered footer.  By default, this is the
             version of Perl you run pod2man under.  Note that some
             system an macro sets assume that the centered footer
             will be a modification date and will prepend something
             like "Last modified: "; if this is the case, you may
             want to set --release to the last modified date and --
             date to the version number.
         -s, --section
             Set the section for the `.TH' macro.  The standard
             section numbering convention is to use 1 for user
             commands, 2 for system calls, 3 for functions, 4 for
             devices, 5 for file formats, 6 for games, 7 for
             miscellaneous information, and 8 for administrator
             commands.  There is a lot of variation here, however;
             some systems (like Solaris) use 4 for file formats, 5
             for miscellaneous information, and 7 for devices.  Still
             others use 1m instead of 8, or some mix of both.  About
             the only section numbers that are reliably consistent
             are 1, 2, and 3.
             By default, section 1 will be used unless the file ends
             in .pm in which case section 3 will be selected.


         If pod2man fails with errors, see the Pod::Man manpage and
         the Pod::Parser manpage for information about what those
         errors might mean.


             pod2man program > program.1
             pod2man /usr/perl/man/man3/SomeModule.3
             pod2man --section=7 note.pod > note.7
         If you would like to print out a lot of man page
         continuously, you probably want to set the C and D registers
         to set contiguous page numbering and even/odd paging, at
         least on some versions of man(7).
             troff -man -rC1 -rD1 perl.1 perldata.1 perlsyn.1 ...
         To get index entries on stderr, turn on the F register, as
             troff -man -rF1 perl.1
         The indexing merely outputs messages via `.tm' for each
         major page, section, subsection, item, and any `X<>'
         directives.  See the Pod::Man manpage for more details.


         Lots of this documentation is duplicated from the Pod::Man
         POD checking and the corresponding --lax option don't work


         For those not sure of the proper layout of a man page, here
         are some notes on writing a proper man page.
         The name of the program being documented is conventionally
         written in bold (using B<>) wherever it occurs, as are all
         program options.  Arguments should be written in italics
         (I<>).  Functions are traditionally written in italics; if
         you write a function as function(), Pod::Man will take care
         of this for you.  Literal code or commands should be in C<>.
         References to other man pages should be in the form
         `manpage(section)', and Pod::Man will automatically format
         those appropriately.  As an exception, it's traditional not
         to use this form when referring to module documentation; use
         `L<Module::Name>' instead.
         References to other programs or functions are normally in
         the form of man page references so that cross-referencing
         tools can provide the user with links and the like.  It's
         possible to overdo this, though, so be careful not to
         clutter your documentation with too much markup.
         The major headers should be set out using a `=head1'
         directive, and are historically written in the rather
         startling ALL UPPER CASE format, although this is not
         mandatory.  Minor headers may be included using `=head2',
         and are typically in mixed case.
         The standard sections of a manual page are:
             Mandatory section; should be a comma-separated list of
             programs or functions documented by this podpage, such
                 foo, bar - programs to do something
             Manual page indexers are often extremely picky about the
             format of this section, so don't put anything in it
             except this line.  A single dash, and only a single
             dash, should separate the list of programs or functions
             from the description.  Functions should not be qualified
             with `()' or the like.  The description should ideally
             fit on a single line, even if a man program replaces the
             dash with a few tabs.
             A short usage summary for programs and functions.  This
             section is mandatory for section 3 pages.
             Extended description and discussion of the program or
             functions, or the body of the documentation for man
             pages that document something else.  If particularly
             long, it's a good idea to break this up into subsections
             `=head2' directives like:
                 =head2 Normal Usage
                 =head2 Advanced Features
                 =head2 Writing Configuration Files
             or whatever is appropriate for your documentation.
             Detailed description of each of the command-line options
             taken by the program.  This should be separate from the
             description for the use of things like Pod::Usage.  This
             is normally presented as a list, with each option as a
             separate `=item'.  The specific option string should be
             enclosed in B<>.  Any values that the option takes
             should be enclosed in I<>.  For example, the section for
             the option --section=manext would be introduced with:
                 =item B<--section>=I<manext>
             Synonymous options (like both the short and long forms)
             are separated by a comma and a space on the same `=item'
             line, or optionally listed as their own item with a
             reference to the canonical name.  For example, since --
             section can also be written as -s, the above would be:
                 =item B<-s> I<manext>, B<--section>=I<manext>
             (Writing the short option first is arguably easier to
             read, since the long option is long enough to draw the
             eye to it anyway and the short option can otherwise get
             lost in visual noise.)
             What the program or function returns, if successful.
             This section can be omitted for programs whose precise
             exit codes aren't important, provided they return 0 on
             success as is standard.  It should always be present for
             Exceptions, error return codes, exit statuses, and errno
             settings.  Typically used for function documentation;
             program documentation uses DIAGNOSTICS instead.  The
             general rule of thumb is that errors printed to STDOUT
             or STDERR and intended for the end user are documented
             in DIAGNOSTICS while errors passed internal to the
             calling program and intended for other programmers are
             documented in ERRORS.  When documenting a function that
             sets errno, a full list of the possible errno values
             should be given here.
             All possible messages the program can print out--and
             what they mean.  You may wish to follow the same
             documentation style as the Perl documentation; see
             perldiag(1) for more details (and look at the POD source
             as well).
             If applicable, please include details on what the user
             should do to correct the error; documenting an error as
             indicating "the input buffer is too small" without
             telling the user how to increase the size of the input
             buffer (or at least telling them that it isn't possible)
             aren't very useful.
             Give some example uses of the program or function.
             Don't skimp; users often find this the most useful part
             of the documentation.  The examples are generally given
             as verbatim paragraphs.
             Don't just present an example without explaining what it
             does.  Adding a short paragraph saying what the example
             will do can increase the value of the example immensely.
             Environment variables that the program cares about,
             normally presented as a list using `=over', `=item', and
             `=back'.  For example:
                 =over 6
                 =item HOME
                 Used to determine the user's home directory.  F<.foorc> in this
                 directory is read for configuration details, if it exists.
             Since environment variables are normally in all
             uppercase, no additional special formatting is generally
             needed; they're glaring enough as it is.
             All files used by the program or function, normally
             presented as a list, and what it uses them for.  File
             names should be enclosed in F<>.  It's particularly
             important to document files that will be potentially
             Things to take special care with, sometimes called
             Things that are broken or just don't work quite right.
             Bugs you don't plan to fix.  :-)
             Miscellaneous commentary.
         SEE ALSO
             Other man pages to check out, like man(1), man(7),
             makewhatis(8), or catman(8).  Normally a simple list of
             man pages separated by commas, or a paragraph giving the
             name of a reference work.  Man page references, if they
             use the standard `name(section)' form, don't have to be
             enclosed in L<>, but other things in this section
             probably should be when appropriate.  You may need to
             use the `L<...|...>' syntax to keep pod2man and pod2text
             from being too verbose; see perlpod(1).
             If the package has a web site, include a URL here.
             Who wrote it (use AUTHORS for multiple people).
             Including your current e-mail address (or some e-mail
             address to which bug reports should be sent) so that
             users have a way of contacting you is a good idea.
             Remember that program documentation tends to roam the
             wild for far longer than you expect and pick an e-mail
             address that's likely to last if possible.
             Programs derived from other sources sometimes have this,
             or you might keep a modification log here.
         In addition, some systems use CONFORMING TO to note
         conformance to relevant standards and MT-LEVEL to note
         safeness for use in threaded programs or signal handlers.
         These headings are primarily useful when documenting parts
         of a C library.  Documentation of object-oriented libraries
         or modules may use CONSTRUCTORS and METHODS sections for
         detailed documentation of the parts of the library and save
         the DESCRIPTION section for an overview; other large modules
         may use FUNCTIONS for similar reasons.  Some people use
         OVERVIEW to summarize the description if it's quite long.
         Sometimes there's an additional COPYRIGHT section at the
         bottom, for licensing terms.  AVAILABILITY is sometimes
         added, giving the canonical download site for the software
         or a URL for updates.
         Section ordering varies, although NAME should always be the
         first section (you'll break some man page systems
         otherwise), and NAME, SYNOPSIS, DESCRIPTION, and OPTIONS
         generally always occur first and in that order if present.
         In general, SEE ALSO, AUTHOR, and similar material should be
         left for last.  Some systems also move WARNINGS and NOTES to
         last.  The order given above should be reasonable for most
         Finally, as a general note, try not to use an excessive
         amount of markup.  As documented here and in the Pod::Man
         manpage, you can safely leave Perl variables, function
         names, man page references, and the like unadorned by markup
         and the POD translators will figure it out for you.  This
         makes it much easier to later edit the documentation.  Note
         that many existing translators (including this one
         currently) will do the wrong thing with e-mail addresses or
         URLs when wrapped in L<>, so don't do that.
         For additional information that may be more accurate for
         your specific system, see either man(5) or man(7) depending
         on your system manual section numbering conventions.


         Pod::Man, Pod::Parser, man(1), nroff(1), troff(1), man(7)
         The man page documenting the an macro set may be man(5)
         instead of man(7) on your system.


         Russ Allbery <>, based very heavily on the
         original pod2man by Larry Wall and Tom Christiansen.  Large
         portions of this documentation, particularly the sections on
         the anatomy of a proper man page, are taken from the pod2man
         documentation by Tom.

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