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ssl_ca ()
  • >> ssl_ca (1) ( Разные man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
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    NAME

    ca - sample minimal CA application
     
    

    SYNOPSIS

    openssl ca [-verbose] [-config filename] [-name section] [-gencrl] [-revoke file] [-crldays days] [-crlhours hours] [-crlexts section] [-startdate date] [-enddate date] [-days arg] [-md arg] [-policy arg] [-keyfile arg] [-key arg] [-passin arg] [-cert file] [-in file] [-out file] [-notext] [-outdir dir] [-infiles] [-spkac file] [-ss_cert file] [-preserveDN] [-batch] [-msie_hack] [-extensions section]  

    DESCRIPTION

    The ca command is a minimal CA application. It can be used to sign certificate requests in a variety of forms and generate CRLs it also maintains a text database of issued certificates and their status.

    The options descriptions will be divided into each purpose.  

    CA OPTIONS


    -config filename
    specifies the configuration file to use.
    -name section
    specifies the configuration file section to use (overrides default_ca in the ca section).
    -in filename
    an input filename containing a single certificate request to be signed by the CA.
    -ss_cert filename
    a single self signed certificate to be signed by the CA.
    -spkac filename
    a file containing a single Netscape signed public key and challenge and additional field values to be signed by the CA. See the NOTES section for information on the required format.
    -infiles
    if present this should be the last option, all subsequent arguments are assumed to the the names of files containing certificate requests.
    -out filename
    the output file to output certificates to. The default is standard output. The certificate details will also be printed out to this file.
    -outdir directory
    the directory to output certificates to. The certificate will be written to a filename consisting of the serial number in hex with ``.pem'' appended.
    -cert
    the CA certificate file.
    -keyfile filename
    the private key to sign requests with.
    -key password
    the password used to encrypt the private key. Since on some systems the command line arguments are visible (e.g. Unix with the `ps' utility) this option should be used with caution.
    -passin arg
    the key password source. For more information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1). =item -verbose

    this prints extra details about the operations being performed.

    -notext
    don't output the text form of a certificate to the output file.
    -startdate date
    this allows the start date to be explicitly set. The format of the date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).
    -enddate date
    this allows the expiry date to be explicitly set. The format of the date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).
    -days arg
    the number of days to certify the certificate for.
    -md alg
    the message digest to use. Possible values include md5, sha1 and mdc2. This option also applies to CRLs.
    -policy arg
    this option defines the CA ``policy'' to use. This is a section in the configuration file which decides which fields should be mandatory or match the CA certificate. Check out the POLICY FORMAT section for more information.
    -msie_hack
    this is a legacy option to make ca work with very old versions of the IE certificate enrollment control ``certenr3''. It used UniversalStrings for almost everything. Since the old control has various security bugs its use is strongly discouraged. The newer control ``Xenroll'' does not need this option.
    -preserveDN
    Normally the DN order of a certificate is the same as the order of the fields in the relevant policy section. When this option is set the order is the same as the request. This is largely for compatibility with the older IE enrollment control which would only accept certificates if their DNs match the order of the request. This is not needed for Xenroll.
    -batch
    this sets the batch mode. In this mode no questions will be asked and all certificates will be certified automatically.
    -extensions section
    the section of the configuration file containing certificate extensions to be added when a certificate is issued. If no extension section is present then a V1 certificate is created. If the extension section is present (even if it is empty) then a V3 certificate is created.
     

    CRL OPTIONS


    -gencrl
    this option generates a CRL based on information in the index file.
    -crldays num
    the number of days before the next CRL is due. That is the days from now to place in the CRL nextUpdate field.
    -crlhours num
    the number of hours before the next CRL is due.
    -revoke filename
    a filename containing a certificate to revoke.
    -crlexts section
    the section of the configuration file containing CRL extensions to include. If no CRL extension section is present then a V1 CRL is created, if the CRL extension section is present (even if it is empty) then a V2 CRL is created. The CRL extensions specified are CRL extensions and not CRL entry extensions. It should be noted that some software (for example Netscape) can't handle V2 CRLs.
     

    CONFIGURATION FILE OPTIONS

    The section of the configuration file containing options for ca is found as follows: If the -name command line option is used, then it names the section to be used. Otherwise the section to be used must be named in the default_ca option of the ca section of the configuration file (or in the default section of the configuration file). Besides default_ca, the following options are read directly from the ca section:
     RANDFILE
     preserve
     msie_hack With the exception of RANDFILE, this is probably a bug and may change in future releases.

    Many of the configuration file options are identical to command line options. Where the option is present in the configuration file and the command line the command line value is used. Where an option is described as mandatory then it must be present in the configuration file or the command line equivalent (if any) used.

    oid_file
    This specifies a file containing additional OBJECT IDENTIFIERS. Each line of the file should consist of the numerical form of the object identifier followed by white space then the short name followed by white space and finally the long name.
    oid_section
    This specifies a section in the configuration file containing extra object identifiers. Each line should consist of the short name of the object identifier followed by = and the numerical form. The short and long names are the same when this option is used.
    new_certs_dir
    the same as the -outdir command line option. It specifies the directory where new certificates will be placed. Mandatory.
    certificate
    the same as -cert. It gives the file containing the CA certificate. Mandatory.
    private_key
    same as the -keyfile option. The file containing the CA private key. Mandatory.
    RANDFILE
    a file used to read and write random number seed information, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).
    default_days
    the same as the -days option. The number of days to certify a certificate for.
    default_startdate
    the same as the -startdate option. The start date to certify a certificate for. If not set the current time is used.
    default_enddate
    the same as the -enddate option. Either this option or default_days (or the command line equivalents) must be present.
    default_crl_hours default_crl_days
    the same as the -crlhours and the -crldays options. These will only be used if neither command line option is present. At least one of these must be present to generate a CRL.
    default_md
    the same as the -md option. The message digest to use. Mandatory.
    database
    the text database file to use. Mandatory. This file must be present though initially it will be empty.
    serialfile
    a text file containing the next serial number to use in hex. Mandatory. This file must be present and contain a valid serial number.
    x509_extensions
    the same as -extensions.
    crl_extensions
    the same as -crlexts.
    preserve
    the same as -preserveDN
    msie_hack
    the same as -msie_hack
    policy
    the same as -policy. Mandatory. See the POLICY FORMAT section for more information.
     

    POLICY FORMAT

    The policy section consists of a set of variables corresponding to certificate DN fields. If the value is ``match'' then the field value must match the same field in the CA certificate. If the value is ``supplied'' then it must be present. If the value is ``optional'' then it may be present. Any fields not mentioned in the policy section are silently deleted, unless the -preserveDN option is set but this can be regarded more of a quirk than intended behaviour.  

    SPKAC FORMAT

    The input to the -spkac command line option is a Netscape signed public key and challenge. This will usually come from the KEYGEN tag in an HTML form to create a new private key. It is however possible to create SPKACs using the spkac utility.

    The file should contain the variable SPKAC set to the value of the SPKAC and also the required DN components as name value pairs. If you need to include the same component twice then it can be preceded by a number and a `.'.  

    EXAMPLES

    Note: these examples assume that the ca directory structure is already set up and the relevant files already exist. This usually involves creating a CA certificate and private key with req, a serial number file and an empty index file and placing them in the relevant directories.

    To use the sample configuration file below the directories demoCA, demoCA/private and demoCA/newcerts would be created. The CA certificate would be copied to demoCA/cacert.pem and its private key to demoCA/private/cakey.pem. A file demoCA/serial would be created containing for example ``01'' and the empty index file demoCA/index.txt.

    Sign a certificate request:

     openssl ca -in req.pem -out newcert.pem
    
    
    
    Sign a certificate request, using CA extensions:

     openssl ca -in req.pem -extensions v3_ca -out newcert.pem
    
    
    
    Generate a CRL

     openssl ca -gencrl -out crl.pem
    
    
    
    Sign several requests:

     openssl ca -infiles req1.pem req2.pem req3.pem
    
    
    
    Certify a Netscape SPKAC:

     openssl ca -spkac spkac.txt
    
    
    
    A sample SPKAC file (the SPKAC line has been truncated for clarity):

     SPKAC=MIG0MGAwXDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAANLADBIAkEAn7PDhCeV/xIxUg8V70YRxK2A5
     CN=Steve Test
     emailAddress=steve@openssl.org
     0.OU=OpenSSL Group
     1.OU=Another Group
    
    
    
    A sample configuration file with the relevant sections for ca:

     [ ca ]
     default_ca      = CA_default            # The default ca section
     
     [ CA_default ]
    
    
    
     dir            = ./demoCA              # top dir
     database       = $dir/index.txt        # index file.
     new_certs_dir  = $dir/newcerts         # new certs dir
     
     certificate    = $dir/cacert.pem       # The CA cert
     serial         = $dir/serial           # serial no file
     private_key    = $dir/private/cakey.pem# CA private key
     RANDFILE       = $dir/private/.rand    # random number file
     
     default_days   = 365                   # how long to certify for
     default_crl_days= 30                   # how long before next CRL
     default_md     = md5                   # md to use
    
    
    
     policy         = policy_any            # default policy
    
    
    
     [ policy_any ]
     countryName            = supplied
     stateOrProvinceName    = optional
     organizationName       = optional
     organizationalUnitName = optional
     commonName             = supplied
     emailAddress           = optional
    
    
    
     

    WARNINGS

    The ca command is quirky and at times downright unfriendly.

    The ca utility was originally meant as an example of how to do things in a CA. It was not supposed be be used as a full blown CA itself: nevertheless some people are using it for this purpose.

    The ca command is effectively a single user command: no locking is done on the various files and attempts to run more than one ca command on the same database can have unpredictable results.  

    FILES

    Note: the location of all files can change either by compile time options, configuration file entries, environment variables or command line options. The values below reflect the default values.

     /usr/local/ssl/lib/openssl.cnf - master configuration file
     ./demoCA                       - main CA directory
     ./demoCA/cacert.pem            - CA certificate
     ./demoCA/private/cakey.pem     - CA private key
     ./demoCA/serial                - CA serial number file
     ./demoCA/serial.old            - CA serial number backup file
     ./demoCA/index.txt             - CA text database file
     ./demoCA/index.txt.old         - CA text database backup file
     ./demoCA/certs                 - certificate output file
     ./demoCA/.rnd                  - CA random seed information
    
    
    
     

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

    OPENSSL_CONF reflects the location of master configuration file it can be overridden by the -config command line option.  

    RESTRICTIONS

    The text database index file is a critical part of the process and if corrupted it can be difficult to fix. It is theoretically possible to rebuild the index file from all the issued certificates and a current CRL: however there is no option to do this.

    CRL entry extensions cannot currently be created: only CRL extensions can be added.

    V2 CRL features like delta CRL support and CRL numbers are not currently supported.

    Although several requests can be input and handled at once it is only possible to include one SPKAC or self signed certificate.  

    BUGS

    The use of an in memory text database can cause problems when large numbers of certificates are present because, as the name implies the database has to be kept in memory.

    Certificate request extensions are ignored: some kind of ``policy'' should be included to use certain static extensions and certain extensions from the request.

    It is not possible to certify two certificates with the same DN: this is a side effect of how the text database is indexed and it cannot easily be fixed without introducing other problems. Some S/MIME clients can use two certificates with the same DN for separate signing and encryption keys.

    The ca command really needs rewriting or the required functionality exposed at either a command or interface level so a more friendly utility (perl script or GUI) can handle things properly. The scripts CA.sh and CA.pl help a little but not very much.

    Any fields in a request that are not present in a policy are silently deleted. This does not happen if the -preserveDN option is used but the extra fields are not displayed when the user is asked to certify a request. The behaviour should be more friendly and configurable.

    Cancelling some commands by refusing to certify a certificate can create an empty file.  

    SEE ALSO

    req(1), spkac(1), x509(1), CA.pl(1), config(5)


     

    Index

    NAME
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CA OPTIONS
    CRL OPTIONS
    CONFIGURATION FILE OPTIONS
    POLICY FORMAT
    SPKAC FORMAT
    EXAMPLES
    WARNINGS
    FILES
    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
    RESTRICTIONS
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO


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