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stunnel ()
  • >> stunnel (8) ( Linux man: Команды системного администрирования )
  • Ключ stunnel обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.


    stunnel - universal SSL tunnel


    stunnel [<filename>] | -fd n | -help | -version | -sockets
    stunnel [ [-install | -uninstall | -start | -stop]
        [-quiet] [<filename>] ] | -help | -version | -sockets


    The stunnel program is designed to work as SSL encryption wrapper between remote clients and local (inetd-startable) or remote servers. The concept is that having non-SSL aware daemons running on your system you can easily set them up to communicate with clients over secure SSL channels.

    stunnel can be used to add SSL functionality to commonly used Inetd daemons like POP-2, POP-3, and IMAP servers, to standalone daemons like NNTP, SMTP and HTTP, and in tunneling PPP over network sockets without changes to the source code.

    This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (  


    Use specified configuration file
    -fd n (Unix only)
    Read the config file from specified file descriptor
    Print stunnel help menu
    Print stunnel version and compile time defaults
    Print default socket options
    -install (NT/2000/XP only)
    Install NT Service
    -uninstall (NT/2000/XP only)
    Uninstall NT Service
    -start (NT/2000/XP only)
    Start NT Service
    -stop (NT/2000/XP only)
    Stop NT Service
    -quiet (NT/2000/XP only)
    Don't display a message box when successfully installed or uninstalled NT service


    Each line of the configuration file can be either:
    an empty line (ignored)
    a comment starting with ';' (ignored)
    an 'option_name = option_value' pair
    '[service_name]' indicating a start of a service definition


    chroot = directory (Unix only)
    directory to chroot stunnel process

    chroot keeps stunnel in chrooted jail. CApath, CRLpath, pid and exec are located inside the jail and the patches have to be relative to the directory specified with chroot.

    To have libwrap (TCP Wrappers) control effective in a chrooted environment you also have to copy its configuration files (/etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny) there.

    compression = zlib | rle
    select data compression algorithm

    default: no compression

    debug = [facility.]level
    debugging level

    Level is a one of the syslog level names or numbers emerg (0), alert (1), crit (2), err (3), warning (4), notice (5), info (6), or debug (7). All logs for the specified level and all levels numerically less than it will be shown. Use debug = debug or debug = 7 for greatest debugging output. The default is notice (5).

    The syslog facility 'authpriv' will be used unless a facility name is supplied. (Facilities are not supported on Win32.)

    Case is ignored for both facilities and levels.

    EGD = egd path (Unix only)
    path to Entropy Gathering Daemon socket

    Entropy Gathering Daemon socket to use to feed OpenSSL random number generator. (Available only if compiled with OpenSSL 0.9.5a or higher)

    engine = auto | <engine id>
    select hardware engine

    default: software-only cryptography

    foreground = yes | no (Unix only)
    foreground mode

    Stay in foreground (don't fork) and log to stderr instead of via syslog (unless output is specified).

    default: background in daemon mode

    output = file
    append log messages to a file instead of using syslog

    /dev/stdout device can be used to redirect log messages to the standard output (for example to log them with daemontools splogger).

    pid = file (Unix only)
    pid file location

    If the argument is empty, then no pid file will be created.

    pid path is relative to chroot directory if specified.

    RNDbytes = bytes
    bytes to read from random seed files

    Number of bytes of data read from random seed files. With SSL versions less than 0.9.5a, also determines how many bytes of data are considered sufficient to seed the PRNG. More recent OpenSSL versions have a builtin function to determine when sufficient randomness is available.

    RNDfile = file
    path to file with random seed data

    The SSL library will use data from this file first to seed the random number generator.

    RNDoverwrite = yes | no
    overwrite the random seed files with new random data

    default: yes

    service = servicename
    use specified string as the service name

    On Unix: inetd mode service name for TCP Wrapper library.

    On NT/2000/XP: NT service name in the Control Panel.

    default: stunnel

    setgid = groupname (Unix only)
    setgid() to groupname in daemon mode and clears all other groups
    setuid = username (Unix only)
    setuid() to username in daemon mode
    socket = a|l|r:option=value[:value]
    Set an option on accept/local/remote socket

    The values for linger option are l_onof:l_linger. The values for time are tv_sec:tv_usec.


        socket = l:SO_LINGER=1:60
            set one minute timeout for closing local socket
        socket = r:TCP_NODELAY=1
            turn off the Nagle algorithm for remote sockets
        socket = r:SO_OOBINLINE=1
            place out-of-band data directly into the
            receive data stream for remote sockets
        socket = a:SO_REUSEADDR=0
            disable address reuse (enabled by default)
        socket = a:SO_BINDTODEVICE=lo
            only accept connections on loopback interface
    taskbar = yes | no (WIN32 only)
    enable the taskbar icon

    default: yes



    Each configuration section begins with service name in square brackets. The service name is used for libwrap (TCP Wrappers) access control and lets you distinguish stunnel services in your log files.

    Note that if you wish to run stunnel in inetd mode (where it is provided a network socket by a server such as inetd, xinetd, or tcpserver) then you should read the section entitled INETD MODE below.

    accept = [host:]port
    accept connections on specified host:port

    If no host specified, defaults to all IP addresses for the local host.

    CApath = directory
    Certificate Authority directory

    This is the directory in which stunnel will look for certificates when using the verify. Note that the certificates in this directory should be named XXXXXXXX.0 where XXXXXXXX is the hash value of the cert.

    CApath path is relative to chroot directory if specified.

    CAfile = certfile
    Certificate Authority file

    This file contains multiple CA certificates, used with the verify.

    cert = pemfile
    certificate chain PEM file name

    A PEM is always needed in server mode. Specifying this flag in client mode will use this certificate chain as a client side certificate chain. Using client side certs is optional. The certificates must be in PEM format and must be sorted starting with the certificate to the highest level (root CA).

    ciphers = cipherlist
    Select permitted SSL ciphers

    A colon delimited list of the ciphers to allow in the SSL connection. For example DES-CBC3-SHA:IDEA-CBC-MD5

    client = yes | no
    client mode (remote service uses SSL)

    default: no (server mode)

    connect = [host:]port
    connect to remote host:port

    If no host specified, defaults to localhost.

    CRLpath = directory
    Certificate Revocation Lists directory

    This is the directory in which stunnel will look for CRLs when using the verify. Note that the CRLs in this directory should be named XXXXXXXX.0 where XXXXXXXX is the hash value of the CRL.

    CRLpath path is relative to chroot directory if specified.

    CRLfile = certfile
    Certificate Revocation Lists file

    This file contains multiple CRLs, used with the verify.

    delay = yes | no
    delay DNS lookup for 'connect' option
    exec = executable_path (Unix only)
    execute local inetd-type program

    exec path is relative to chroot directory if specified.

    execargs = $0 $1 $2 ... (Unix only)
    arguments for exec including program name ($0)

    Quoting is currently not supported. Arguments are separated with arbitrary number of whitespaces.

    ident = username
    use IDENT (RFC 1413) username checking
    key = keyfile
    private key for certificate specified with cert option

    Private key is needed to authenticate certificate owner. Since this file should be kept secret it should only be readable to its owner. On Unix systems you can use the following command:

        chmod 600 keyfile

    default: value of cert option

    local = host
    IP of the outgoing interface is used as source for remote connections. Use this option to bind a static local IP address, instead.
    options = SSL_options
    OpenSSL library options

    The parameter is the OpenSSL option name as described in the SSL_CTX_set_options(3ssl) manual, but without SSL_OP_ prefix. Several options can be used to specify multiple options.

    For example for compatibility with erroneous Eudora SSL implementation the following option can be used:

    protocol = proto
    application protocol to negotiate SSL

    currently supported: cifs, connect, nntp, pop3, smtp

    protocolCredentials = username:password
    credentials for protocol negotiations
    protocolHost = host:port
    destination address for protocol negotiations
    pty = yes | no (Unix only)
    allocate pseudo terminal for 'exec' option
    session = timeout
    session cache timeout
    TIMEOUTbusy = seconds
    time to wait for expected data
    TIMEOUTclose = seconds
    time to wait for close_notify (set to 0 for buggy MSIE)
    TIMEOUTconnect = seconds
    time to wait to connect a remote host
    TIMEOUTidle = seconds
    time to keep an idle connection
    transparent = yes | no (Unix only)
    transparent proxy mode

    Re-write address to appear as if wrapped daemon is connecting from the SSL client machine instead of the machine running stunnel. This option is only available in local mode (exec option) by LD_PRELOADing shared library or in remote mode (connect option) on Linux 2.2 kernel compiled with transparent proxy option and then only in server mode. Note that this option will not combine with proxy mode (connect) unless the client's default route to the target machine lies through the host running stunnel, which cannot be localhost.

    verify = level
    verify peer certificate

        level 1 - verify peer certificate if present
        level 2 - verify peer certificate
        level 3 - verify peer with locally installed certificate
        default - no verify


    stunnel returns zero on success, non-zero on error.  


    In order to provide SSL encapsulation to your local imapd service, use

        accept = 993
        exec = /usr/sbin/imapd
        execargs = imapd

    If you want to provide tunneling to your pppd daemon on port 2020, use something like

        accept = 2020
        exec = /usr/sbin/pppd
        execargs = pppd local
        pty = yes

    If you want to use stunnel in inetd mode to launch your imapd process, you'd use this stunnel.conf. Note there must be no [service_name] section.

        exec = /usr/sbin/imapd
        execargs = imapd


    stunnel configuration file
    stunnel certificate and private key


    Option execargs does not support quoting.  


    stunnel cannot be used for the FTP daemon because of the nature of the FTP protocol which utilizes multiple ports for data transfers. There are available SSL enabled versions of FTP and telnet daemons, however.  




    The most common use of stunnel is to listen on a network port and establish communication with either a new port via the connect option, or a new program via the exec option. However there is a special case when you wish to have some other program accept incoming connections and launch stunnel, for example with inetd, xinetd, or tcpserver.

    For example, if you have the following line in inetd.conf:

        imaps stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/stunnel stunnel /etc/stunnel/imaps.conf

    In these cases, the inetd-style program is responsible for binding a network socket (imaps above) and handing it to stunnel when a connection is received. Thus you do not want stunnel to have any accept option. All the Service Level Options should be placed in the global options section, and no [service_name] section will be present. See the EXAMPLES section for example configurations.  


    Each SSL enabled daemon needs to present a valid X.509 certificate to the peer. It also needs a private key to decrypt the incoming data. The easiest way to obtain a certificate and a key is to generate them with the free OpenSSL package. You can find more information on certificates generation on pages listed below.

    Two things are important when generating certificate-key pairs for stunnel. The private key cannot be encrypted, because the server has no way to obtain the password from the user. To produce an unencrypted key add the -nodes option when running the req command from the OpenSSL kit.

    The order of contents of the .pem file is also important. It should contain the unencrypted private key first, then a signed certificate (not certificate request). There should be also empty lines after certificate and private key. Plaintext certificate information appended on the top of generated certificate should be discarded. So the file should look like this:

        -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
        [encoded key]
        -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
        [empty line]
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        [encoded certificate]
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
        [empty line]


    stunnel needs to seed the PRNG (pseudo random number generator) in order for SSL to use good randomness. The following sources are loaded in order until sufficient random data has been gathered:
    The file specified with the RNDfile flag.
    The file specified by the RANDFILE environment variable, if set.
    The file .rnd in your home directory, if RANDFILE not set.
    The file specified with '--with-random' at compile time.
    The contents of the screen if running on Windows.
    The egd socket specified with the EGD flag.
    The egd socket specified with '--with-egd-sock' at compile time.
    The /dev/urandom device.

    With recent (>=OpenSSL 0.9.5a) version of SSL it will stop loading random data automatically when sufficient entropy has been gathered. With previous versions it will continue to gather from all the above sources since no SSL function exists to tell when enough data is available.

    Note that on Windows machines that do not have console user interaction (mouse movements, creating windows, etc) the screen contents are not variable enough to be sufficient, and you should provide a random file for use with the RNDfile flag.

    Note that the file specified with the RNDfile flag should contain random data --- that means it should contain different information each time stunnel is run. This is handled automatically unless the RNDoverwrite flag is used. If you wish to update this file manually, the openssl rand command in recent versions of OpenSSL, would be useful.

    One important note --- if /dev/urandom is available, OpenSSL has a habit of seeding the PRNG with it even when checking the random state, so on systems with /dev/urandom you're likely to use it even though it's listed at the very bottom of the list above. This isn't stunnel's behaviour, it's OpenSSLs.  


    access control facility for internet services
    internet 'super-server'
    stunnel homepage
    stunnel Frequently Asked Questions
    OpenSSL project website


    Michal Trojnara




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