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perlcygwin (1)
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         README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin


         This document will help you configure, make, test and
         install Perl on Cygwin.  This document also describes
         features of Cygwin that will affect how Perl behaves at
         NOTE: There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin
         and a version of Perl is provided on the Cygwin CD.  If you
         have no need to customize the configuration, consider using
         one of these packages:


         Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
         The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development
         tools for Win32 platforms.  They run thanks to the Cygwin
         library which provides the UNIX system calls and environment
         these programs expect.  More information about this project
         can be found at:
         A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
         At the time this document was written, the port required
         recent development snapshots that were expected to stabilize
         early in 2000 and be released to the net as B21 and
         commercially as v1.1.
         NOTE: At this point, minimal effort has been made to provide
         compatibility with old (beta) Cygwin releases.  The focus
         has been to provide a high quality release and not worry
         about working around old Cygwin bugs.  If you wish to use
         Perl with Cygwin B20.1 or earlier, consider using either
         perl5.005_03 or perl5.005_62, which are available in source
         and binary form at `' or on the
         Cygwin CD.  If there is significant demand, a patch kit can
         be developed to port back to earlier Cygwin versions.
         A recent net or commercial release of gcc is required.
         At the time this document was written, gcc-2.95.2 was
         current and could be downloaded from:
         Cygwin Configuration
         While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your
         Cygwin setup so that Perl builds cleanly.  These changes are
         not required for normal Perl usage.
         NOTE: The binaries that are built will run on all Win32
         versions.  They do not depend on your host system (Win9x,
         WinNT) or your Cygwin configuration (ntea, ntsec,
         binary/text mounts).  The only dependencies come from
         hardcoded pathnames like `/usr/local'.  However, your host
         system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's runtime
         behavior (see the TEST entry elsewhere in this document).
         Some regression tests may fail in different ways depending
         on your setup.  For now, the test suite does not skip tests
         that do not make sense given a particular setup.  If a test
         can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is left in and explainable
         test failures are documented.
         o `PATH'
             Set the `PATH' environment variable so that Configure
             finds the Cygwin versions of programs.  Any Windows
             directories should be removed or moved to the end of
             your `PATH'.
         o /bin/cat.exe
             There should be an instance of cat in /bin (or
             /usr/bin).  Configure tests `#!/bin/cat' and if it is
             not found, you will see the error:
               Configure: ./try: No such file or directory
         o /usr/bin
             If you do not have a /usr/bin directory, Configure will
             not prompt you to install perl into /usr/bin.
         o nroff
             If you do not have nroff (which is part of the groff
             package), Configure will not prompt you to install man
         o Permissions
             On WinNT with either the ntea or ntsec `CYGWIN'
             settings, directory and file permissions may not be set
             correctly.  Since the build process creates files and
             directories, to be safe you may want to run a ``chmod -R
             +w *'' on the entire Perl source tree.
             Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files
             created by a login that is a member of the
             Administrators group will be owned by the Administrators
             group.  Depending on your umask, you may find that you
             can not write to files that you just created (because
             you are no longer the owner).  When using the ntsec
             `CYGWIN' setting, this is not an issue because it
             "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on a
             UNIX system.


         The default options gathered by Configure with the
         assistance of hints/ will build a Perl that
         supports dynamic loading (which requires a shared
         This will run Configure and keep a record:
           ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
         If you are willing to accept all the defaults add a -d
         option.  However, several useful customizations are
         Strip Binaries
         It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the
         build process.  The resulting binaries will be significantly
         smaller.  If you want the binaries to be stripped, you can
         either add a -s option when Configure prompts you,
           Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
           Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
           Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
           [none] -s
         or you can edit hints/ and uncomment the relevant
         variables near the end of the file.
         Optional Libraries
         Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence
         of some optional libraries.  Configure will find them if
         they are installed in one of the directories listed as being
         used for library searches.  Pre-built packages for most of
         these are available at `'.
         o `-lcrypt'
             The crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to
             The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey
             NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES
             implementations, see the glibc README for more details.
             The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
             More information can also be found at:
         o `-lgdbm' (`use GDBM_File')
             GDBM is available for Cygwin.  GDBM's ndbm/dbm
             compatibility feature also makes `NDBM_File' and
             `ODBM_File' possible (although they add little extra
         o `-ldb' (`use DB_File')
             BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin.  Some details can be
             found in ext/DB_File/
         o `-lcygipc' (`use IPC::SysV')
             A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
             NOTE: This has not been extensively tested.  In
             particular, `d_semctl_semun' is undefined because it
             fails a configure test and on Win9x the shm*() functions
             seem to hang.
         Configure-time Options
         The INSTALL document describes several Configure-time
         options.  Some of these will work with Cygwin, others are
         not yet possible.  Also, some of these are experimental.
         You can either select an option when Configure prompts you
         or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
         o `-Uusedl'
             Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled
         o `-Uusemymalloc'
             By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl
             source.  If you want to force Perl to build with the
             system malloc() undefine this symbol.
         o `-Dusemultiplicity'
             Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C
             program and using more than one interpreter instance.
             This works with the Cygwin port.
         o `-Duseperlio'
             The PerlIO abstraction works with the Cygwin port.
         o `-Duse64bitint'
             gcc supports 64-bit integers.  However, several
             additional long long functions are necessary to use them
             within Perl ({strtol,strtoul}l).  These are not yet
             available with Cygwin.
         o `-Duselongdouble'
             gcc supports long doubles (12 bytes).  However, several
             additional long double math functions are necessary to
             use them within Perl
             These are not yet available with Cygwin.
         o `-Dusethreads'
             POSIX threads are not yet implemented in Cygwin.
         o `-Duselargefiles'
             Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently
             uses 32-bit integers for internal size and position
         Suspicious Warnings
         You may see some messages during Configure that seem
         o Whoa There
             Cygwin does not yet implement chroot(), setegid() or
             seteuid() functionality, but has stub functions that
             return `ENOSYS'.  You will see a message when Configure
             detects that its guess conflicts with the hint file.
               *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
                   The recommended value for $d_chroot on this machine was "undef"!
                   Keep the recommended value? [y]
             You should keep the recommended value.
         o dlsym
             ld2 is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does
             not exist when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not
             created until ``make'' runs).  You will see the
             following message:
               Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
               I can't compile and run the test program.
               I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
             Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
         o Win9x and d_eofnblk
             Win9x does not correctly report `EOF' with a non-
             blocking read on a closed pipe.  You will see the
             following messages:
               But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
               WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
               *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
                   The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
                   Keep the recommended value? [y]
             At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the
             recommended value.
         o Checking how std your stdio is...
             Configure reports:
               Your stdio doesn't appear very std.
             This is correct.
         o Compiler/Preprocessor defines
             The following error occurs because of the Cygwin
             `#define' of `_LONG_DOUBLE':
               Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
               try.c:3847: parse error
             This failure does not seem to cause any problems.


         Simply run make and wait:
           make 2>&1 | tee log.make
         Warnings like these are normal:
           warning: overriding commands for target <file>
           warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
           Warning: no export definition file provided
           dllwrap will create one, but may not be what you want
         During ``make'', ld2 will be created and installed in your
         $installbin directory (where you said to put public
         executables).  It does not wait until the ``make install''
         process to install the ld2 script, this is because the
         remainder of the ``make'' refers to ld2 without fully
         specifying its path and does this from multiple
         subdirectories.  The assumption is that $installbin is in
         your current `PATH'.  If this is not the case or if you do
         not have an install program, ``make'' will fail at some
         point.  If this happens, just manually copy ld2 from the
         source directory to someplace in your `PATH'.


         There are two steps to running the test suite:
           make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
           cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
         The same tests are run both times, but more information is
         provided when running as ``./perl harness''.
         Test results vary depending on your host system and your
         Cygwin configuration.  It is possible that Cygwin will pass
         all the tests, but it is more likely that some tests will
         fail for one of these reasons.
         File Permissions
         UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
         {read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}.  By
         default Cygwin only tracks the Win32 readonly attribute
         represented as the UNIX file user write bit (files are
         always readable, files are executable if they have a
         .{com,bat,exe} extension or begin with `#!', directories are
         always readable and executable).  On WinNT with the ntea
         `CYGWIN' setting, the remaining mode bits are stored as
         extended attributes.  On WinNT with the ntsec `CYGWIN'
         setting, permissions use the standard WinNT security
         descriptors and access control lists.  Without one of these
         options, these tests will fail:
           Failed Test           List of failed
           io/fs.t               5, 7, 9-10
           lib/anydbm.t          2
           lib/db-btree.t        20
           lib/db-hash.t         16
           lib/db-recno.t        18
           lib/gdbm.t            2
           lib/ndbm.t            2
           lib/odbm.t            2
           lib/sdbm.t            2
           op/stat.t             9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
         Hard Links
         FAT partitions do not support hard links (whereas NTFS
         does), in which case Cygwin implements link() by copying the
         file.  These tests will fail:
           Failed Test           List of failed
           io/fs.t               4
           op/stat.t             3
         Filetime Granularity
         On FAT partitions the filetime granularity is 2 seconds.
         The following test will fail:
           Failed Test           List of failed
           io/fs.t               18
         Tainting Checks
         When Perl is running in taint mode, `$ENV{PATH}' is
         considered tainted and not used, so DLLs not in the default
         system directories will not be found.  While the tests are
         running you will see warnings popup from the system with
         messages like:
             Error Starting Program
             A required .DLL file, CYGWIN1.DLL, was not found
             perl.exe or sh.exe - Unable to Locate DLL
             The dynamic link library cygwin1.dll could not be found in the
               specified path ...
         Just click OK and ignore them.  When running ``make test'',
         2 popups occur.  During ``./perl harness'', 4 popups occur.
         Also, these tests will fail:
           Failed Test           List of failed
           op/taint.t            1, 3, 31, 37
         Alternatively, you can copy cygwin1.dll into one of the
         Windows system directories (although, this is not
         Cygwin does not require /etc/group, in which case the
         op/grent.t test will be skipped.  The check performed by
         op/grent.t expects to see entries that use the members
         field, otherwise this test will fail:
           Failed Test           List of failed
           op/grent.t            1
         Unexplained Failures
         Any additional tests that fail are likely due to bugs in
         Cygwin or the optional libraries.  It is expected that by
         the time of the next net release most of these will be
         solved so they are not described here.
         Script Portability
         Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like
         semantics on top of Win32 systems.  However, in addition to
         the items noted above, there are some differences that you
         should know about.  This is only a very brief guide to
         portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin
         o Pathnames
             Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (/) or
             backward (\) slashes.  They may also begin with drive
             letters (C:) or Universal Naming Codes (//UNC).  DOS
             device names (aux, con, prn, com*, lpt?) are invalid as
             base filenames.  However, they can be used in extensions
             (e.g., hello.aux).  Names may not contain these
               : * ? " < > |
             File names are case insensitive, but case preserving.
             With the mixed `CYGWIN' setting, file names are mixed-
             case (although, directory names remain case
             The mixed setting is only available with the "coolview"
             version of cygwin1.dll provided by Sergey Okhapkin at:
         o Text/Binary
             When a file is opened it is in either text or binary
             mode.  In text mode a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z
             translations.  With Cygwin, the default mode for an
             open() is determined by the mode of the mount that
             underlies the file.  Perl provides a binmode() function
             to set binary mode on files that otherwise would be
             treated as text.  sysopen() with the `O_TEXT' flag sets
             text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as
                 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
             lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files
             opened in binary mode.
             The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin
         o .exe
             The Cygwin stat() makes the .exe extension transparent
             by looking for a foo.exe when you ask for foo (unless a
             foo also exists).  Cygwin does not require a .exe
             extension, but gcc adds it automatically when building a
             program.  However, when accessing an executable as a
             normal file (e.g., install or cp in a makefile) the .exe
             is not transparent.
             NOTE: There is a version of install that understands the
             .exe semantics, it can be found at:
         o chown()
             On WinNT with the ntsec `CYGWIN' setting, chown() can
             change a file's user and group IDs.  In all other
             configurations chown() is a no-op, although this is
             appropriate on Win9x since there is no security model.
         o Miscellaneous
             File locking using the `F_GETLK' command to fcntl() is a
             stub that returns `ENOSYS'.
             Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT


         This will install Perl, including man pages.
           make install | tee log.make-install
         NOTE: If `STDERR' is redirected ``make install'' will not
         prompt you to install perl into /usr/bin.
         You may need to be Administrator to run ``make install''.
         If you are not, you must have write access to the
         directories in question.
         Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML
         format can be found in the INSTALL document.


         These are the files in the Perl release that contain
         references to Cygwin.  These very brief notes attempt to
         explain the reason for all conditional code.  Hopefully,
         keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to be
         kept as clean as possible.
               INSTALL README.cygwin
               Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004
               pod/perl.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod
               pod/perlport.pod pod/perltoc.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod
         Build, Configure, Make, Install
               Configure             - help finding hints from uname,
                                       shared libperl required for dynamic loading
               Makefile.SH           - linklibperl
               Porting/patchls       - cygwin in port list
               installman            - man pages with :: translated to .
               installperl           - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
               makedepend.SH         - uwinfix
               t/io/tell.t           - binmode
               t/lib/glob-basic.t    - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
               t/op/magic.t          - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
               t/op/stat.t           - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
                                       (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
                                       previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
         Compiled Perl Source
               EXTERN.h              - __declspec(dllimport)
               XSUB.h                - __declspec(dllexport)
               cygwin/cygwin.c       - os_extras (getcwd)
               perl.c                - os_extras
               perl.h                - binmode
               doio.c                - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
               pp_sys.c              - do not define h_errno
               mg.c                  - environ WORKAROUND
               unixish.h             - environ WORKAROUND
               util.c                - environ WORKAROUND
         Compiled Module Source
               ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs    - tzname defined externally
                                     - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
                                     - binary open
         Perl Modules/Scripts
               lib/            - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
                                     - require
                                     - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
               lib/File/Spec/ - preserve //unc
               lib/        - use stdin not /dev/tty
               utils/perlcc.PL       - DynaLoader.a in compile, -DUSEIMPORTLIB
               utils/perldoc.PL      - version comment


         Upon each start, make warns that a rule for perlmain.o is
         overridden (but there seems to be no better solution than
         adding an explicit define).
         ``make clean'' does not remove library .def and
         .exe.stackdump files.
         The ld2 script contains references to the source directory.
         You should change these to `/usr/local/bin' (or whatever)
         after install.


         Charles Wilson <>, Eric Fifer
         <>, alexander smishlajev
         <>, Steven Morlock <>,
         Sebastien Barre <>, Teun Burgers


         Last updated: 1 March 2000

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